The Reigns of Kings Richard I and John

“Pitiful and pitied by no one, why have I come to the ignominy of this detestable old age, who was ruler of two kingdoms, mother of two kings? My guts are torn from me, my family is carried off and removed from me. Two sons survive to punish me, miserable and condemned. King Richard is held in chains. His brother, John, depletes his kingdom with iron and lays it waste with fire. Truly God's wrath battles against me: my sons fight amongst themselves, if it is a fight where where one is restrained in chains, the other, adding sorrow to sorrow, undertakes to usurp the kingdom of the exile by cruel tyranny. Good Jesus, who will grant that you protect me in hell and hide me until your fury passes, until the arrows which are in me cease, by which my whole spirit is sucked out?"

Eleanor of Aquitaine to Pope Celestine (1193)


Click here for revision films and materials for life in the 12th and 13th century.

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